e obtained results, the researcher could safely reject the null-hypothesis, which stated alternative teaching model does not have a significant effect on EFL learners’ grammar achievement., with (t= -2.973, df =58, p=0.004), as the p value came out to be lower than 0.05.
The findings of this study indicate the positive role of co-teaching on enhancing students’ grammatical knowledge. As the results show, the experimental group had better scores on the structural grammar post- test. It is clear that just one research can not show a confirm conclusion. Nonetheless, the result of this study is consistent with the results of some previous studies in relation to this topic. Lipsky & Gartner (1996) maintain that those who are in charge of teaching should keep in mind that they should help teachers move from a traditional non-collaborative environment to one where collaboration is embraced and practiced. It is important for any particular school to find an effective collaboration model and strategy, as not all models and strategies transfer effectively from one school to another or more specifically, one classroom to another (Cramer & Stivers, 2007). Co-teachers are also expected to learn to modify instructional materials and delivery of instruction to meet the individual needs of the students in their classroom (Amerman & Fleres, 2003; Pugach & Johnson, 2002; Villa et al., 2004). When both teachers share this responsibility, it creates a classroom that facilitates the inclusion of students (Villa et al., 2004). When teachers enter into a co-teaching partnership, they have the support, time, and resources to develop curricula and teaching strategies that reflect research-based, best practices in teaching and learning (Pugach & Johnson, 2002). As it was mentioned co-teaching has many benefits including general benefits and specific ones. Among the general ones, academic improvement can be mentioned. A three year study by Walther-Thomas (1997) states that students in an inclusive classroom taught by co-teachers improved their self-worth as a learner, improved their academic learning, improved their social skills, and improved their collaboration skills. Results from another study indicated that with two teachers in the classroom, the co-teaching service delivery model lowers the teacher-student ratio. Therefore, more one-to-one interaction is achievable than in solo-taught classrooms and students academically benefit from having two teachers in the same classroom (Magiera & Zigmond, 2005). The result of this study is in line with the findings obtained by some researchers (such as Mickelson, 2008; Rea, McLaughlin & Walther-Thomas, 2002), since these researchers have provided evidence that co-teaching can result in increasing student achievement.
CONCLUSION AND PEDAGOGICAL MPLICATIONS
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alternative -teaching model on EFL learners’ grammar achievement. The result of the study indicated that there was a significant effect of alternative -teaching model on EFL learners’ grammar achievement.
In this chapter, the summary of the study, concluding remarks and the theoretical and practical implications of the study as well as suggestions for further research will be enumerated and discussed.
5.2. Summary of the Findings
The present study set out to test the following the null hypotheses:
Co-teaching model has no significant effect on EFL learners’ grammar achievement.
Before the initiation of the treatment, a Cambridge Key English Test (KET) was piloted among 30 students having the same characteristics of the main participants of this study and showed an acceptable reliability of0.775 Subsequently, the test was administered to 90 female students through which 60 of them whose scores fell between one standard deviation above and below the mean were chosen as the participants of this study and randomly divided into one control and one experimental group. Then, the selected students in both groups took part in a teacher made grammar test.
To make sure that both groups’ grammar was not significantly different at the outset, an independent samples t-test was run on the means of the two groups on the grammar test; the results (t = 0.611, p = 0.881 0.05) indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups on their grammar at the outset. Subsequently, the treatment began with 30 students in each group in a course lasting 10 sessions of 60 minutes each.
At the end of the treatment phase, participants of both groups took another teacher made grammar, this time as the posttest. To test the hypothesis of this study, an independent sample t-test was run. The results (t = 2.973, p = 0.012 0.05) indicated that there was indeed a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups on their grammar following the treatment; consequently, the null hypothesis of the study stating that Co-teaching model has no significant effect on EFL learners’ grammar achievement was rejected.
As was mentioned previously the present research was conducted in order to display the extent to which the co-teaching would leave effects on EFL learners learning grammar. To do so a quasi experimental study was designed and data were collected in a procedure duly discussed in chapter three and the data gathered were coded and fed into the software SPSS for analysis. To answer the question of the study, the results undertook a series of statistical operations. First, the means, standard deviation, and variance of the two groups in the pre-test were calculated. Then, a t-test was run to see if the selected group were homogeneous. The same procedure was also taken for post test to see if any significant difference between subjects achievement could be found or if the hypothesis could be rejected. The students were administered a validated constructed pre-test of grammar ability. As the results of the post-test indicated, the most important conclusion drawn from this study is that co-teaching is an important and significant technique for improving grammar abilities of EFL learners.
5.4. Theoretical Implications
As it was mentioned above, teaching is one of the complicated processes taking place in the schools and educational institutions. In traditional teaching model, one teacher is responsible for supervising all tasks of lessons over a specific time. One of the recently suggested methods for accelerating and facilitating the education process is co-teaching model. The findings of the study support the positive and effective consequences of co-teaching on grammatical structures of EFL learners and creating a more real atmosphere for learners to encounter a new language.
5.5. Practical Implications
The results of the study are believed to carry implications for EFL teachers and material developers. Teachers and practitioners at any level, regardless of the type of materials they apply, are recommended to fit co-teaching instruction into their syllabus so that they would be able to acquaint learners with actual encountering of language exploitation. Accordingly, the materials developers are recommended to take co-teaching techniques of grammar and real settings of learning into their materials. In so doing, they will provide teachers and learners with easier conditions to practice grammatical structure in and out of classrooms.
Partnering with another teacher provides opportunities to gain different perspectives of teaching strategies by opening a collective focus on student learning. Besides providing teachers with a sense of collegiality, co-teaching can provide teachers with a synergy that invigorates them as professionals to try new, innovative strategies and activities to meet the needs of all students in of the diverse student population in a regular education classroom (Friend & Cook, 2007; Hourcade & Bauwens, 2001). A co-teaching arrangement allows teachers to share classroom management duties. Co-teachers are able to assume fewer roles in general because their partners can take on a portion of the roles typically done by one teacher (Bouck, 2007). Consequently, more time can be devoted to meeting the individual needs of diverse learners (Duchardt et al., 1999).
5.6. Suggestions for Further Research
Due to the problems referred to above, the project was implemented at a regional, school level. It can be replicated at a national scale and to cover a larger number of subjects as a result to elevate the generalizabilty of the findings. In addition, co-teaching instruction -oriented techniques and activities can also be examined in other skills or components as listening, speaking, writing, vocabulary and pronunciation.
Albrecht, N. M. R. (Nov. 2003). University faculty collaboration and its impact on professional Development. Ed. D. dissertation, Kansas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, A64/05, 1546.
Aliakbari, M., & Bazyar, A. (2012). Exploring the Impact of Parallel Teaching on General Language Proficiency of EFL learners. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 55-71.
____________. (in press). On the Impact of ‘Station teaching’ on EFL Learners’ General Language